A Compilation of Frozen Water by Dominik Gigler


This book and body of work is about frozen water and snow.
The images have the appearance of icebergs, but are much smaller in size.
All icebergs in this book were photographed using natural materials and daylight. 

What’s the definition of an iceberg?
An iceberg is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water. It may subsequently become frozen into pack ice. About 90 percent of an iceberg is below the surface of the wate

Because the density of pure ice is about 920 kg/m3, and that of seawater about 1025 kg/m3, typically about one-tenth of the volume of an iceberg is above water.

The tops of icebergs typically range from 1 to 75 metres above sea level and weigh 100,000 to 200,000 tons. The largest known iceberg in the North Atlantic was 168 metres above sea level, reported by the USCG icebreaker East Wind in 1958, making it the height of a 55-story building. These icebergs originate from the glaciers of western Greenland and may have interior temperatures of −15 to −20 °C.

Winds and currents tend to move icebergs close to the coast. The largest icebergs recorded have been calved, or broken off, from the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica. Iceberg B-15, photographed by satellite in 2000, measured 295 by 37 kilometres, with a surface area of 11,000 square kilometres.

The largest iceberg on record was an Antarctic tabular iceberg of over 32,000 square kilometres (335 by 97 kilometres) sighted 240 km west of Scott Island, in the South Pacific Ocean, by the USS Glacier on November 12, 1956. This iceberg was larger than Belgium.

A small iceberg less than 2 meters across that floats with less than 1 meter showing above water is called a growler. It is smaller than a bergy bit, which is usually less than 5 meters in size and are generally spawned from disintegrating icebergs.

As a piece of iceberg ice melts, it produces a fizzing sound called the "Bergie Seltzer". This sound results when the water-ice interface reaches compressed air bubbles trapped in the ice. As this happens, each bubble bursts, making a "popping" sound. The bubbles contain air trapped in snow layers very early in the history of the ice, that eventually got buried to a given depth (up to several kilometers) and pressurized as it transformed into firn then to glacial ice.

Icebergs are monitored worldwide by the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC), established in 1995, which produces analyses and forecasts of Arctic, Antarctic, Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay ice conditions. More than 95% of the data used in its sea ice analyses are derived from the remote sensors on polar-orbiting satellites that survey these remote regions of the Earth.

The NIC is the only organization that names and tracks all Antarctic Icebergs. It assigns each iceberg larger than 10 nautical miles along at least one axis a name composed of a letter indicating its point of origin and a running number.